Basic Computer Operations Easy to Learn


All computer systems perform 5 basic computer operations for converting raw input data into useful information and presenting it to the users.

5 Basic Computer Operations In computer organisation

Basic Operations of a Computer System

  1. Inputting
  2. Storing
  3. Processing
  4. Outputting
  5. Controlling

Input Unit

  • Data and instruction must enter in a computer system before performing any computation on supplied data.
  • The input unit links a computer system with a external environment.
  • The devices by which we can supply data and instruction such as keyboard(typing), scanner(data scanning) etc .
  • The computer memory accepts data and istruction i.e inputs in binary code and hence all devices must tranform input signals to binary code i.e called INPUT INTERFACES accomplish this transformation.
In brief about this basic computer operation
  1. It accepts or read data and instruction from outside world.
  2. Converting these data & instruction into computer acceptable form called INPUT INTERFACES.
  3. Supplying converted data & instruction to computer system for futhur process.

Storage unit

It provides space for storing data, instruction, intermediate results, and result for an output.

In Short

  • Data and instruction required for processing(received from input devices).
  • Intermediate results for processing.
  • Results for output, before they released to an output devices.


  1. PRIMARY STORAGE(Main memory)
  2. SECONDARY STORAGE(Auxillary memory)

Processing Unit

The task of performing calculations and comparisons are known as processing. This task mainly involves ALU;

ALU(Arithmetic Logical Unit )

  • ALU is a place where actual execution of instruction takes place during processing operation.
  • to be accurately, calculations & all comparisons(decision making terms) are made in ALU.
  • Data & instruction stored in main memiry besire processing operation are tranformed as & when required to ALU where processing takes place.
  • Intermidiate results generated in ALU are temperarily transformed back to primary storage until needed later on.
  • Data move from primary storage to ALU & again back to primary memory many imes before processing is over.

Output Unit

  • Reverse of our first & basic computer operations I.e INPUT OPERATION.
  • It supplies information obtained from data processing to outside world.
  • It links computer system with its external environment.
  • Before suppling the binar code reults to outside world, the computer sustem convert them into huamn acceptable language form i.e readable. this is called OUTPUT INTERFACES.

In Short

  1. Accepts results produced by computer, which is in coded form we cannot undertand easily.
  2. Converts coded results into human understandable language form which is called OUTPUT INTERFACES.
  3. Represents converted results to output environment.

Control Unit

Q.1 How does an input device know that it is time for it to feed data to the storage unit?

Q.2 How does the arithmetic logical unit know what should be done with the data once they are received?

Q.3 How only output results are sent to an output device and why not the intermediate results?

Answer to above questions is CONTROL UNIT in computer system.

  • It does not perform any actual processing on data.
  • The control unit act as a Central Nervous System for other components of computer system.
  • Manages & co-ordinatesthe entire computer system.
  • The obtained instruction in a program main memory interprets instructions and send issues signals which is causin other unit of system to execute them.

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